Subject

Industrial research and development

"Industrial research and development" is the study of Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products. Research and development constitutes the first stage of development of a potential new service or the production process.

Business R&D, Benefit by sector, Global, Government expenditures 3.1 United States 3.2 European Union 3.3 Worldwide are a few themes of "Industrial research and development".

Goals of "Industrial research and development" include R&D activities differ from institution to institution, with two primary models of an R&D department either staffed by engineers and tasked with directly developing new products, or staffed with industrial scientists and tasked with applied research in scientific or technological fields, which may facilitate future product development.

A few scholars of "Industrial research and development" include Anderson, James C.; Narus, James A.ChartsBin. "Research and Development Employees by Country".

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