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Socialism

Belongs to subject Socialism

Socialist systems are divided into non-market and market forms. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, regulation, and a welfare state. By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. Guild socialists were less inclined than Fabians to invest power in a state. Revolutionary socialism encompasses multiple social and political movements that may define "revolution" differently from one another. Few communists doubted that the Russian success of socialism depended on successful, working-class socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries. He then moved towards democratic socialism. Among these there appeared the Communist Party of France, the Communist Party USA, the Italian Communist Party, the Chinese Communist Party, the Mexican Communist Party, the Brazilian Communist Party, the Chilean Communist Party and the Communist Party of Indonesia.

After World War II, social democratic governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via state welfare and taxation. This experience prompted the contemporary socialist radical movement autonomism. The Labour Party stated: "The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. Julius Nyerere was inspired by Fabian socialist ideals. Essentially he believed Africans were already socialists. Forms include the Chinese socialist market economy and the Vietnamese socialist-oriented market economy. The Communist Party of Nepal in particular calls for multi-party democracy, social equality and economic prosperity. Several socialist (or socialist-leaning) Many forms of socialist theory hold that human behaviour is largely shaped by the social environment. Socialists view private property relations as limiting the potential of productive forces in the economy. Early socialists (utopian socialists and Ricardian socialists) criticised capitalism for concentrating power and wealth within a small segment of society. Socialists have taken different perspectives on the state and the role it should play in revolutionary struggles, in constructing socialism and within an established socialist economy. Following the victory of Leninism in Russia, the idea of "state socialism" spread rapidly throughout the socialist movement and eventually state socialism came to be identified with the Soviet economic model. Likewise, modern intentional communities based on socialist ideas could also be categorised as "utopian socialist". Revolutionary socialists believe that a social revolution is necessary to effect structural changes to the socioeconomic structure of society. Reformism is generally associated with social democracy and gradualist democratic socialism. Some socialists feel that in a socialist economy, at least the "commanding heights" of the economy must be publicly owned. Enrico Barone provided a comprehensive theoretical framework for a planned socialist economy. Yugoslavia implemented a market socialist economy based on cooperatives and worker self-management.

The current economic system in China is formally referred to as a socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics. The major socialist political movements are described below. Independent socialist theorists, utopian socialist authors and academic supporters of socialism may not be represented in these movements. Some political groups have called themselves socialist while holding views that some consider antithetical to socialism. In The Concepts of Socialism (1975), Bhikhu Parekh identifies four core principles of socialism and particularly socialist society: sociality, social responsibility, cooperation and planning. Modern democratic socialism is a broad political movement that seeks to promote the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. Democratic socialism generally refers to any political movement that seeks to establish an economy based on economic democracy by and for the working class. Libertarian socialism (sometimes called social anarchism, left-libertarianism and socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralised state ownership and control of the economy including criticism of wage labour relationships within the workplace, as well as the state itself. As such, libertarian socialism within the larger socialist movement seeks to distinguish itself both from Leninism/Bolshevism and from social democracy. Social democracy is a political ideology which "is derived from a socialist tradition of political thought. Many social democrats refer to themselves as socialists or democratic socialists, and some, for example Tony Blair, use or have used these terms interchangeably. Most social democratic parties are affiliated with the Socialist International. Liberal socialism is a socialist political philosophy that includes liberal principles within it. Liberal socialism does not have the goal of abolishing capitalism with a socialist economy, instead it supports a mixed economy that includes both public and private property in capital goods. Many socialists were early advocates for LGBT rights. Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is a political position merging aspects of Marxism, socialism and/or libertarian socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalisation. Syndicalism is a social movement that operates through industrial trade unions and rejects state socialism and the use of establishment politics to establish or promote socialism. They reject using state power to construct a socialist society, favouring strategies such as the general strike. Syndicalists advocate a socialist economy based on federated unions or syndicates of workers who own and manage the means of production.

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