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History of architecture

Belongs to subject History of naval architecture

The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates. The branches of architecture are civil, sacred, naval, military, and landscape architecture (landscape architecture is a discipline of its own right, not a branch of architecture, it just happened to have 'architecture' in a name).

Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. Ancient architecture is characterized by this tension between the divine and mortal world. Early Byzantine architecture was built as a continuation of Roman architecture. Archaeological excavations have provided sufficient documents in support of the impacts of Sasanian architecture on the architecture of the Islamic world. Islamic architecture is typically based on the idea of relating to the secular or the religious. Some distinctive structures in Islamic architecture are mosques, tombs, palaces, baths, and forts, although Islamic architects have of course also applied their distinctive design precepts to domestic architecture. Ethiopian architecture (including modern-day Eritrea) expanded from the Aksumite style and incorporated new traditions with the expansion of the Ethiopian state. Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Architectural styles range from Hindu temple architecture to Islamic architecture to western classical architecture to modern and post-modern architecture. It includes the architecture of various dynasties, such as Hoysala architecture, Vijayanagara architecture and Western Chalukya architecture. The rule of the Delhi Sultanate, Deccan Sultanates and Mughal Empire led to the development of Indo-Islamic architecture, a style that combined Islamic influences with traditional Indian styles. During the British Raj, a new style of architecture known as the Indo-Saracenic revival style developed, which incorporated varying degrees of Indian elements into the British style. I

Masterpieces of sculpture but architecture scarce. The high classical style of Khmer architecture. The last great style. The geographic position of Indonesia means a transition between the culture of Asian Hindu-Buddhism architecture and animistic architecture of Oceania. The architecture of the Pacific Islands was varied and sometimes large in scale. Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries. Since the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. This contrasts Western architecture, which tends to grow in height and depth. Chinese architecture stresses the visual impact of the width of the buildings. However, there were several early treatises on architecture in China, with encyclopedic information on architecture dating back to the Han Dynasty. Many current Chinese architectural designs follow post-modern and western styles.

Japanese architecture has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. Because of the need to rebuild Japan after World War II, major Japanese cities contain numerous examples of modern architecture. Modernism became increasingly popular in architecture in Japan starting in the 1950s.

Incan architecture consists of the major construction achievements developed by the Incas. The famous lost city Machu Picchu is the best surviving example of Incan architecture. Impermanent buildings, which were often architecturally unique from region to region, continue to influence American architecture today. Surviving examples of medieval secular architecture mainly served for defense. Castles and fortified walls provide the most notable remaining non-religious examples of medieval architecture. Architecture continued to thrive in the reigns of Henry II and Henry III. This Palladian architecture and continued classical imagery would in turn go on to influence Thomas Jefferson and other early architects of the United States in their search for a new national architecture. Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in North America between c. 1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815. What Style Shall We Build In?Beaux-Arts architecture denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without a major renovation until 1968.

The exact characteristics and origins of modern architecture are still open to interpretation and debate. Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. Modernist theory in architecture resided in the attempt to bypass the question of what style a building should be built in, a concern that had overshadowed 19th-century architecture, and the wish to reduce form to its most minimal expression of structure and function. Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. Modern architecture has continued into the 21st century as a contemporary style, especially for corporate office buildings. Postmodern architecture is an international style whose first examples are generally cited as being from the 1950s, and which continues to influence present-day architecture. Classic examples of modern architecture are the Lever House and the Seagram Building in commercial space, and the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright or the Bauhaus movement in private or communal spaces. Deconstructivism in architecture is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s. Sustainable architecture is an important topic in contemporary architecture, including the trends of New Urbanism, New Classical architecture and Eco-cities.

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