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Queen Anne's War

Belongs to subject Queen Anne's War, 1702–1713

The belligerents were France, French colonists, and various Indian tribes versus England, English colonists, and various Indian tribes for control of the American continent; the War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. It was fought on three fronts:

Spanish Florida and the English Province of Carolina attacked one another, and the English colonists engaged the French colonists based at Mobile, Alabama, with allied Indians on both sides. The English colonists of New England fought against French colonists and Indian forces in Acadia and Canada. The French colonists and the Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. English colonists based at St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador disputed control of the island with the French colonists of Plaisance. The French colonists successfully captured St. John's in 1709, but the British colonists quickly reoccupied it after the French abandoned it. The total population of the English colonies at the time has been estimated at 250,000, with Virginia and New England dominating. This area was dominated by Indian tribes, although French and English traders had penetrated the area. The arrival of French colonists in the south threatened existing trade links that Carolina colonists had established into the interior, creating tension among all three powers. Conflicting territorial claims between Carolina and Florida south of the Savannah River were overlaid by animosity over religious divisions between the Roman Catholic colonists of New Spain and the Protestant colonists along the coast. Newfoundland was the site of a British colony at St. John's and a French colony at Plaisance, with both sides also holding a number of smaller permanent settlements. The borders and boundaries remained uncertain between Acadia and New England despite battles along the border throughout King William's War. New France defined the border of Acadia as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. There were Catholic missions at Norridgewock and Penobscot and a French settlement in Penobscot Bay near Castine, Maine, which had all been bases for attacks on New England settlers migrating toward Acadia during King William's War. They were spread throughout the territories of New France, with concentrations in the major population centers. Florida held an estimated 8,000 Indians before the war, but this was reduced to 200 after English colonist raids made early in the war.

French Canadian explorer Pierre Le Moyne Throughout the war, New France and the Wabanaki Confederacy thwarted New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. New England colonists were unable to effectively combat these raids, so they retaliated by launching an expedition against Acadia led by the famous American Indian fighter Benjamin Church. French and Wabanaki Confederacy continued making raids in northern Massachusetts in 1705, against which the New England colonists were unable to mount an effective defense. There was a lull in the raiding while leaders from New France and New England negotiated the exchange of prisoners, with only limited success. Raids by Indians persisted until the end of the war, sometimes with French participation. In response, the French developed an ambitious plan to raid most of the New Hampshire settlements on the Piscataqua River. In 1709, New France governor Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil reported that two-thirds of the fields north of Boston were untended because of French and Indian raids. French-Indian war parties were returning without prisoners because the New England colonists stayed in their forts and would not come out.

The remainder of Acadia (present-day eastern Maine and New Brunswick) remained disputed territory between New England and New France.

The French in New France's heartland of Canada opposed attacking the Province of New York. New York merchants were opposed to attacking New France because it would interrupt the lucrative Indian fur trade, much of which came through New France. During the winter of 1705, Plaisance's French governor Daniel d'Auger de Subercase retaliated, leading a combined French and Mi'kmaq expedition that destroyed several English settlements and unsuccessfully besieged Fort William at St. John's. By the later years of the war, many Abenakis had tired of the conflict despite French pressures to continue raids against New England targets. Massachusetts and New Hampshire were on the front line of the war, yet the New England colonies suffered less economic damage than other areas. French settlements continued to grow on the Gulf Coast, with the settlement of New Orleans in 1718 and other (unsuccessful) attempts to expand into Spanish-controlled Texas and Florida. Conflicting claims over that territory eventually led to war in 1754, when the French and Indian War broke out.

The English Invasion of Spanish Florida, 1700–1706". Indians and Europeans in Northern New England. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. New York: The Border Wars of New England. New York: New York: ISBN ISBN 0-670-80379-0. University of Nebraska Press. University of North Carolina Press. Indian Wars of New England: Queen Anne's war. Lovewell's war. Governor Shirley's war. French and Indian war(1910) online. A History of England. Waller, George M. "New York's Role in Queen Anne's War, 1702-1713.University of Nebraska Press. New Haven: Yale University Press. University of Georgia Press.

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