Monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad
Islam () is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, universal religion teaching that there is only one God (Arabic: Allah), and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570 – 8 June 632 CE). Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.
Islam (Arabic: إسلام, IPA: In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam.Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. Islam is often seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus Muslims are not expected to anthropomorphise him. " (See Names of God in Islam). Belief in angels is fundamental to Islam. The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels. Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy. The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims identify the 'prophets' (Arabic: أنبياء anbiyāʾ ) of Islam as those humans chosen by God to be his messengers. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God. There are five basic religious acts in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion"), which are considered obligatory for all believers. Apart from these, Muslims also perform other religious acts. God, Muhammad is the messenger of God" (أشهد أن لا This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.
Another kind of charity in Islam is waqf which means perpetual religious endowment.
Pious Muslims recite the whole Quran at the month of Ramadan. Sharia is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. However, there are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam. It is not a sect of Islam and its adherents belong to the various Muslim denominations. Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice. Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Muslims are restricted in their diet. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.
As a virtue, forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam, and is regarded as an important Muslim practice. Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers. religious freedoms Sunni Islam and Shia Islam thus differ in some respects. Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria to Islam. Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe. Turks preserved this status of woman even after conversion to Islam. Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) worried about the integrity of Islam and tried to establish a theological doctrine to purify Islam from its alleged alterings. Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Women's issues receive significant weight in the modern discourse on Islam. Abul A'la Maududi helped influence modern political Islam. The largest denomination in Islam is Sunni Islam, which makes up 75–90% of all Muslims and is arguably the world's largest religious denomination. Maturidi by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi Mahdavia is an Islamic sect that believes in a 15th-century Mahdi, Muhammad Jaunpuri Prominent figures who refused to identify with a particular Islamic denomination have included Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Some movements, such as the Druze, Berghouata and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam and whether each is separate a religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial. African American Muslim movements include the Nation of Islam, Five-Percent Nation and Moorish scientists.
The majority of Muslims live in Asia and Africa. Growth rates of Islam in Europe was due primarily to immigration and higher birth rates of Muslims in 2005.
Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages. Islam's sensual descriptions of paradise led many Christians to conclude that Islam was not a spiritual religion. Apologetic writings, attributed to Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa, not only defended Manichaeism against Islam, but also criticized the Islamic concept of God.
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