Nevertheless, successful colonies were established within several decades. Russian America and parts of New France and New Spain were also incorporated into the United States at various points. No civil wars occurred in the thirteen colonies. England, France, and the Netherlands had also started colonies in the West Indies and North America. Thus, the British Navy captured New Amsterdam (New York) in 1664. I settled most of New England. There were several thousand families in New Mexico and California who became American citizens in 1848, plus small numbers in the other colonies.
During the American Revolution, East and West Florida were Loyalist colonies. Alarmed, the United States offered to buy New Orleans. The city was captured by the English in 1664; they took complete control of the colony in 1674 and renamed it New York. New Sweden The colony was captured by the Dutch in 1655 and merged into New Netherland, with most of the colonists remaining. Years later, the entire New Netherland colony was incorporated into England's colonial holdings. The colony of New Sweden introduced Lutheranism to America in the form of some of the continent's oldest European churches. The Nothnagle Log House in present-day Gibbstown, New Jersey, was constructed in the late 1630s during the time of the New Sweden colony. After its founding, other settlers traveled from England to join the colony. The Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies together spawned other Puritan colonies in New England, including the New Haven, Saybrook, and Connecticut colonies. During the 17th century, the New Haven and Saybrook colonies were absorbed by Connecticut. Economically, Puritan New England fulfilled the expectations of its founders. Other colonists settled to the north, mingling with adventurers and profit-oriented settlers to establish more religiously diverse colonies in New Hampshire and Maine. Under King James II of England, the New England colonies, New York, and the Jerseys were briefly united as the Dominion of New England (1686–89). The Dominion of New England was dissolved and governments resumed under their earlier charters. The Dutch colony of New Netherland was taken over by the British and renamed New York. However, large numbers of Dutch remained in the colony, dominating the rural areas between New York City and Albany. Meanwhile, Yankees from New England started moving in, as did immigrants from Germany. New York City attracted a large polyglot population, including a large black slave population. New Jersey began as a division of New York, and was divided into the proprietary colonies of East and West Jersey for a time. The French and Spanish established colonies in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. In the British and French colonies, most colonists arrived after 1700. The settlers came mainly from the English colony of Barbados and brought African slaves with them. Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain in 1763, which established the colonies of East and West Florida. The Puritan colonies of New England formed a confederation to coordinate military and judicial matters. The major battles took place in Europe, but American colonial troops fought the French and their Indian allies in New York, New England, and Nova Scotia with the Siege of Louisbourg Britain also gained Spanish Florida, from which it formed the colonies of East and West Florida. In the British colonies, the three forms of government were provincial (royal colony), proprietary, and charter. New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and eventually Massachusetts were crown colonies. Pennsylvania (which included Delaware), New Jersey, and Maryland were proprietary colonies. Malaria was deadly to many new arrivals in the Southern colonies. It brought Christianity to the slaves and was a powerful event in New England that challenged established authority. The experiences of women varied greatly from colony to colony during the colonial era. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives almost never worked in the fields with their husbands. A majority of New England residents were small farmers. Most New England parents tried to help their sons establish farms of their own. New England farming families generally lived in wooden houses because of the abundance of trees. Some merchants exploited the vast amounts of timber along the coasts and rivers of northern New England. Hundreds of New England shipwrights built oceangoing ships, which they sold to British and American merchants. Puritans in New England and Quakers in Pennsylvania opposed theatrical performances as immoral and ungodly. Elementary education was widespread in New England. London did not make the Church of England official in the coloniesUnlike New England, the Mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration and, by 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people. In the American colonies, settlers from northern Ireland focused on mixed-farming. Thus, by mid-century, most colonial farming was a commercial venture, although subsistence agriculture continued to exist in New England and the middle colonies. Wealthy merchants in Philadelphia and New York, like their counterparts in New England, built elegant Georgian-style mansions such as those in Fairmount Park. Very few women were present in the early Chesapeake colonies.
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