The most spoken language of Nepal is Nepali Nepal experienced a struggle for democracy at times in the 20th century and early 21st century. Nepal became a federal republic and was formally renamed the 'Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal' ending the 200 year old Shah dynasty.
Combining the two words yields Nepal. Nepal may be derived from it. Some inhabitants of northern Nepal came from Tibet, where they herded sheep and produced wool. Thus, Nepal is "house of wool". The earliest inhabitants of Nepal and adjoining areas were people from the Indus Valley Civilization. The Kirat people arrived from Tibet some 2000 years ago and lived in northern Nepal. The kings of Lichhavi dynasty (originated from Vaishali of modern Bihar of India) have been found to rule Nepal after the Kirat monarchical dynasty. It has been written in Gopal genealogy that 'then, defeating the Kirat King with the impact of Suryavanshi, Lichhavi dynasty was established in Nepal'. That purana also mention that 'the masters of Vaishali had started ruling in Nepal by defeating Kirats'. In this way, Lichhavi's regime seems to have started in Nepal subsequently after the regime of Kirats. The kingdom controlled the areas we today know as Tirhoot or Mithila in Nepal and Bihar of India. The king fled northwards into the then Nepal. Raghava Deva is said to have founded a ruling dynasty in 879 CE, when the Lichhavi rule came to an end. To commemorate this important event, Raghu Deva started the 'Nepal Era' which began on 20 October, 879 CE. After the death of King Raghava Dev, many Thakuri kings ruled Southern Nepal up to the middle of the 12th century CE. He ruled from 949 to 994 CE. Gunakama Deva founded a town called Kantipur, the modern Kathmandu. Bhola Deva succeeded Gunakama Deva. The next ruler was Laxmikama Deva who ruled from 1024 to 1040 CE. Vijaykama Deva was the last ruler of this dynasty. After his death, the Thakuri clan of Nuwakot occupied the throne of Nepal.
Bhaskara Deva, a Thakuri from Nuwakot, succeeded Vijayakama Deva and established Nuwakot-Thakuri rule. After Bhaskara Deva, four kings of this line ruled over the country. They were Bala Deva, Padma Deva, Nagarjuna Deva and Shankara Deva. Shankara Deva (1067–1080 CE) was the most illustrious ruler of this dynasty. Bama Deva, a descendant of Amshuvarma, defeated Shankar Deva in 1080 CE. He suppressed the Nuwakot-Thankuris with the help of nobles and restored the old Solar Dynasty rule in Nepal for the second time. Harsha Deva, the successor of Bama Deva was a weak ruler. Taking that opportunity Nanya Deva, a Karnat dynasty king, attacked Nepal from Simraungarh. In reply Army of Nepal defended, won the battle and successfully protected Nepal from a foreign invasion.
After Harsha Deva, Shivadeva the third ruled from 1099 to 1126 CE. After Sivadeva III, Mahendra Deva, Mana Deva, Narendra Deva II, Ananda Deva, Rudra Deva, Amrita Deva, Ratna Deva II, Somesvara Deva, Gunakama Deva II, Lakmikama Deva III and Vijayakama Deva II ruled Nepal in quick succession. Early Malla rule started with Ari Malla in the 12th century. King Prithvi Narayan Shah captured Kathmandu at the day of Indra Jatra (festival). Malla Dynasty was the Longest ruling dynasty, ruling from the 12th century to the 18th century (about 600 years of the ruling period). The monuments in Kathmandu Valley which are listed by UNESCO these days were built during Malla rule. Yaksha Malla, the grandson of Jayasthiti Malla, ruled the Kathmandu Valley until almost the end of the 15th century. Mutually debilitating wars gradually weakened them, that facilitated conquest of the Kathmandu Valley by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha. Prithvi Narayan Shah Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of Gorkha in 1743 CE. King Prithvi Narayan Shah's victory march began with the conquest of Nuwakot, which lies between Kathmandu and Gorkha, in 1744. Finally, Prithvi Narayan Shah entered the Valley. The British force was defeated at Sindhuli by King Prithvi Narayan Shah's army. Prithvi Narayan Shah sat on the throne. Thus, the Kathmandu Valley was conquered by King Prithvi Narayan Shah and Kathmandu became the capital of the modern Nepal by 1769. King Prithvi Narayan Shah was successful in bringing together diverse religio-ethnic groups under one nation. After 1800, the heirs of Prithvi Narayan Shah proved unable to maintain firm political control over Nepal. Rivalry between Nepal and the British East India Company over the princely states bordering Nepal and British-India eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–16), in which Nepal suffered a heavy defeat. The Rana regime, a tightly centralized autocracy, pursued a policy of isolating Nepal from external influences. Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924 under premiership of Chandra Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. This government drafted a constitution called 'Interim Government Act' which was the first constitution of Nepal. In May 1991, Nepal held its first parliamentary elections in nearly 50 years. The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) Then Prime Minister of Nepal, Oli, publicly accused India for the Blockade calling the act more inhuman than war.
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