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History of pharmacy in the United States

Belongs to subject Pharmacy Dispensatories

The history of pharmacy in the United States is the story of a melting pot of new pharmaceutical ideas and innovations drawn from advancements that Europeans shared, Native American medicine and newly discovered medicinal plants in the New World. American pharmacy grew from this fertile mixture, and has impacted U.S. history, and the global course of pharmacy. Unlike in the UK, where pharmacists were separated from apothecaries by Parliament and the pharmacist had effectively eclipsed the ancient apothecary, appellations and professions have been far more fluid and overlapping in the U.S., especially prior to the regulatory schemes widely adopted in the late 19th century. As the pharmacist increasingly became the distinct discipline and tightly-defined profession it is today, American pharmacists added their own discoveries and innovations, and played a prominent role in the revolution in medical knowledge in the 19th and 20th centuries and the subsequent development of modern medicine. Historical inquiries in this area have been few, and unlike the growing number of programs in the history of medicine, history of pharmacy programs remain few in number in the United States.

"Franco-Spanish" Louisiana "more clearly reflected pharmacy's development in Continental Europe." Jesuit contributions, especially in translating Native American ethnobotany into medicines for European use, were highly influential as pharmacy developed in North America.

" Hunsberger puts the practice of "more or less methodical" pharmacy in Europe "two or three centuries" back, as early as the 16th or 17th centuries, whereas he places the start of organized pharmacy in the United States with the founding of America's first formal college of pharmacy, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (PCP), in 1821.

In the colonial and early independence years, necessity demanded a do-it-yourself approach to pharmacy. In the cities, the foundations of commercial pharmacy were slowly building. The 19th century (1800s) birthed "pharmacy as we know it.And again, pharmacy's development in mainland Europe continued to fuel its growth in the young American republic.

According to William Procter, Jr., Durand "directly and indirectly had much to do with the introduction of scientific pharmacy into Philadelphia.Hunsberger cites the founding of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (PCP) as "the first step forward in the development of a system of pharmaceutical practice in the United States," with the 1821 "meeting of apothecaries...held in Carpenters' Hall" (where the Declaration of Independence had been signed) to set up the first formal college of pharmacy and first pharmacists' association (the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy) in North America the seminal founding event. William Procter, Jr., who graduated from, then taught at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy for 20 years, went on to exert so much influence over the formative years of professional pharmacy that he's now widely considered the "Father of American Pharmacy." Procter successfully argued for the establishment of a chair of Pharmacy for pharmacist-professors at the PCP in 1844, then wrote "the first American pharmacy textbook," which came to be known as Mohr, Redwood, and Procter's Practical Pharmacy (1849). Procter's declaration was later seen as a defining statement of "the American Way of Pharmacy.Other major cities on the Eastern Seaboard followed Philadelphia's lead, establishing university training programs, professional associations and colleges of pharmacy that acted as professional associations like the PCP. New York City was among the quickest to follow suit with the New York College of Pharmacy, established 1829. Note the use of the term "druggists" to denote medication providers who are not trained pharmacists, while the term "apothecary" is still used as positive synonym.

Once in Los Angeles, Downey's main focus and foremost career ambition was mainly that of a politician rather than that of a schooled, professional apothecary or pharmacist. 1860, which saw the first of two European, immigrant, career pharmacists / apothecaries (both of German descent) who arrived in the newly founded American frontier town of Los Angeles, California. The USC College of Pharmacy was established in 1905. By 1900, most pharmacies stocked the shelves, partially or predominantly, with medicines prefabricated en masse by the growing pharmaceutical industry instead of custom-produced by individual pharmacisti, and the traditional role of the scientifically trained pharmacist to produce medicines increasingly eroded. She is considered to be the first female pharmacist in the United States. Mary Corinna Putnam Jacobi graduated from the New York College of Pharmacy in 1863, which made her the first woman to graduate from a United States school of pharmacy. Susan Hayhurst was the first woman to receive a pharmacy degree in the United States, which occurred in 1883. Cora Dow (1868–1915), a pharmacist in Cincinnati, Ohio, was the leading female pharmacist of her time, with eleven stores under her name when she died. Julia Pearl Hughes (1873-1950) was the first African-American female pharmacist to own and operate her own drug store. Anna Louise James (1886-1977) was the first African-American female pharmacist in Connecticut.

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