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Photography

Belongs to subject Photography studio and laboratory

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The birth of photography was then concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Films remained the dominant form of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats. Although modern photography is dominated by digital users, film continues to be used by enthusiasts and professional photographers. Some full-color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, mostly for artistic reasons. Almost all digital cameras have an option to shoot in monochrome, and almost all image editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome image from one shot in color.

Color photography was explored beginning in the 1840s. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image. Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born. Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. Digital photography dominates the 21st century. Synthesis photography is part of computer-generated imagery (CGI) where the shooting process is modeled on real photography. Synthesis photography is the application of analog and digital photography in digital space. With the characteristics of the real photography but not being constrained by the physical limits of real world, synthesis photography allows artists to move into areas beyond the grasp of real photography.

A large variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic plate, photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera). The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods (including cell phone cameras).

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography, geology, forensics and law enforcement.

Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of "light field photography" (also known as synthetic aperture photography). Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera. Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertising photography. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and men's magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude. Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details. Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography but requires some special skills. Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images. Landscape photography depicts locations. Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of animals. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. The methods used in analysing photographs for use in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography. Science uses image technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic film.

There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. However, recent changes of in-camera processing allow digital fingerprinting of photos to detect tampering for purposes of forensic photography.

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