The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape; along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science.Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. The Pythagoreans developed a complex number philosophy and contributed significantly to the development of mathematical science. This new science began to see itself as describing "laws of nature". Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development. Another important development was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population. Modern science is commonly divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, social sciences, and formal sciences. Both natural and social sciences are empirical sciences as their knowledge are based on empirical observations and are capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions. There are also closely related disciplines that use science, such as engineering and medicine, which are sometimes described as applied sciences. Science
Logic; Mathematics; Statistics
Physics; Chemistry; Biology; Earth science; Space science
Economics; Political science; Sociology; Psychology
Engineering; Agricultural science; Medicine; Dentistry; Pharmacy
Business administration; Jurisprudence; Pedagogy
Natural science is concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. It can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science. Modern natural science is the successor to the natural philosophy that began in Ancient Greece. Social science is concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. For example, positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Formal science is involved in the study of formal systems. It includes mathematics, systems theory, and theoretical computer science. The formal sciences are therefore a priori disciplines and because of this, there is disagreement on whether they actually constitute a science. Nevertheless, the formal sciences play an important role in the empirical sciences. Scientific research can be labeled as either basic or applied research. Scientific research involves using the scientific method, which seeks to objectively explain the events of nature in a reproducible way. Mathematics is essential in the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws in the natural and social sciences. There are different schools of thought in philosophy of science. The philosopher of science Karl Popper sharply distinguished truth from certainty. New scientific knowledge rarely results in vast changes in our understanding. Scientific research is published in an enormous range of scientific literature. Scientific journals communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various other research institutions, serving as an archival record of science. Most scientific journals cover a single scientific field and publish the research within that field; the research is normally expressed in the form of a scientific paper. Science books engage the interest of many more people. Discoveries in fundamental science can be world-changing. An area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would not otherwise be able to achieve is sometimes referred to as pseudoscience, fringe science, or junk science. Scientists are individuals who conduct scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest. Science policy also refers to the act of applying scientific knowledge and consensus to the development of public policies. Science policy thus deals with the entire domain of issues that involve the natural sciences. Many governments have dedicated agencies to support scientific research. The public awareness of science relates to the attitudes, behaviors, opinions, and activities that make up the relations between science and the general public. it integrates various themes and activities such as science communication, science museums, science festivals, science fairs, citizen science, and science in popular culture. Social scientists have devised various metrics to measure the public understanding of science such as factual knowledge, self-reported knowledge, and structural knowledge.
Politicization of science is usually accomplished when scientific information is presented in a way that emphasizes the uncertainty associated with the scientific evidence.
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