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Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage

Belongs to subject Preservation, restoration, and conservation of antiquities

The conservation and restoration of cultural heritage focuses on protection and care of tangible cultural heritage, including artworks, architecture, archaeology, and museum collections. Conservation activities include preventive conservation, examination, documentation, research, treatment, and education. This field is closely allied with conservation science, curators and registrars.

Conservation of cultural heritage is often associated with art collections and museums and involves collection care and management through tracking, examination, documentation, exhibition, storage, preventative conservation, and restoration. The scope has widened from art conservation, involving protection and care of artwork and architecture, to conservation of cultural heritage, also including protection and care of a broad set of other cultural and historical works. Conservation of cultural heritage can be described as a type of ethical stewardship. Conservation of cultural heritage applies simple ethical guidelines:

Minimal intervention; Appropriate materials and reversible methods; The early development of conservation of cultural heritage in any area of the world is usually linked to the creation of positions for chemists within museums. Art historians and theorists such as Cesare Brandi have also played a significant role in developing conservation science theory. In recent years ethical concerns have been at the forefront of developments in conservation. Most significantly has been the idea of preventive conservation. The conservator's work is guided by ethical standards. One such example is:

American Institute for Conservation Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice Conservation OnLine provides resources on ethical issues in conservation, including examples of codes of ethics and guidelines for professional conduct in conservation and allied fields; and charters and treaties pertaining to ethical issues involving the preservation of cultural property. Collections care is an important element of museum policy. A museum should carefully monitor the condition of collections to determine when an artifact requires conservation work and the services of a qualified conservator.

Interventive conservation refers to any direct interaction between the conservator and the material fabric of the object. An example of a highly publicized interventive conservation effort would be the conservation work conducted on the Sistine Chapel.

The data thus collected helps in deciding the conservation treatments to be provided to the object.

Improve continuing professional development. For some specializations within conservation this is still the case. However, it is more common in the field of conservation today that the training required to become a practicing conservator comes from a recognized university course in conservation of cultural heritage. Conservation of cultural heritage is an interdisciplinary field as conservators have backgrounds in the fine arts, sciences (including chemistry, biology, and materials science), and closely related disciplines, such as art history, archaeology, studio art, and anthropology. In France, training for heritage conservation is taught by four schools : These organizations exist to "support the conservation professionals who preserve our cultural heritage". Athens Charter

International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments

text

1931

CIAM

text

1956

New Delhi Recommendation

IX UNESCO

text, text

1962

Paris Recommendation

XII UNESCO

text

1964

Venice Charter

II International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments

text, text

1964

Paris Recommendation

XIII UNESCO

text

OAS

text (Spanish), text

1968

Paris Recommendation

XV UNESCO

text

1972

Paris Convention

XVII UNESCO

text

1972

Paris Recommendation

XVII UNESCO

text

1972

Carta Italiana del Restauro

text (Italian)

1972

Stockholm Declaration

UNEP

text

1974

OAS

text (Portuguese), text (Portuguese)

1975

Declaration of Amsterdam

Congress on the European Architectural Heritage

text

1975

European Charter of the Architectural Heritage

Council of Europe

text

1976

Charter on Cultural Tourism, Brussels

International Seminar on Contemporary Tourism and Humanism

text

1976

Nairobi Recommendation

XIX UNESCO

text

1977

Machu Picchu Charter

text (Portuguese), text (Portuguese), text (Spanish), ref (Spanish)

1981

Burra Charter

ICOMOS

text

1982

Florence Charter

ICOMOS: Historic Gardens

text, text

1982

Nairobi Declaration

UNEP

text

1982

ICOMOS

text

1982

MONDIACULT

text, text

1983

Declaration of Rome

ICOMOS

text

1987

Washington Charter

ICOMOS

text, text

1989

Paris Recommendation

XXV UNESCO

text

1990

Lausanne Charter

ICOMOS / ICAHM

text, text

1994

Nara Document

UNESCO / ICCROM / ICOMOS

text, text

1995

European Recommendation

Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers

text (Rec(95)3E), text (Rec(95)9E)

1996

Declaration of San Antonio

ICOMOS

text

1997

Declaration of Sofia

XI ICOMOS or XXIX UNESCO

text

1997

Carta de Mar del Plata

Mercosur

text (Portuguese), text (Portuguese), text (Spanish), text (Spanish)

2000

Cracow Charter

text (Italian)

2002

Paris Recommendation

XXXII UNESCO

text

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