In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. When music was only available through sheet music scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras, music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite pieces and songs so that they could perform them at home on the piano. Live concert recordings are popular in both classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music lovers. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music. In the 2000s, music notation typically means the written expression of music notes and rhythms on paper using symbols. Music notation also often provides instructions on how to perform the music. Written notation varies with style and period of music. Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of music. Broadly, music theory may include any statement, belief, or conception of or about music. The elements of music feature prominently in the music curriculums of Australia, UK and US. Simple classical pieces and many pop and traditional music songs are written so that all the music is in a single key. Choral music written in the Renaissance music era was typically written in this style. Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and muzik, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983).
Music was an important part of education, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of music development. Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes, that eventually became the basis for Western religious and classical music. Baroque music began when the first operas (dramatic solo vocal music accompanied by orchestra) were written. Importance was given to instrumental music. The instruments used chamber music and orchestra became more standardized. Some composers promoted nationalistic pride with patriotic orchestral music inspired by folk music. Traditional music styles such as jazz and folk music were used by composers as a source of ideas for classical music. Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed in the 1960s from 1950s rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, and country music. Philosophy of music is a subfield of philosophy. The philosophy of music is the study of fundamental questions regarding music. What is the definition of music? What is meaning in relation to music? Evolutionary musicology concerns the "origins of music, the question of animal song, selection pressures underlying music evolution", and "music evolution and human evolution". Additionally, individuals' musical memory abilities are greater for culturally familiar music than for culturally unfamiliar music.
Such themes are examined in the sociology of music. Women have played a major role in music throughout history, as composers, songwriters, instrumental performers, singers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions. music." Women are also underrepresented in orchestral conducting, music criticism/music journalism, music producing, and sound engineering. Manifestations of this in music include the production of mashes, remixes, and music videos by fans.
The music industry refers to the businesses connected with the creation and sale of music. Some elementary school children also learn about popular music styles. Graduates of undergraduate music programs can seek employment or go on to further study in music graduate programs. Musicology, the academic study of the subject of music, is studied in universities and music conservatories. The study of music of non-Western cultures, and the cultural study of music, is called ethnomusicology. Music theory is the study of music, generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to music, first applied to atonal music. In the West, much of the history of music that is taught deals with the Western civilization's art music, which is known as classical music. There is a host of music classifications for non-Western music, many of which are caught up in the argument over the definition of music. Among the largest of these is the division between classical music (or "art" music), and popular music (or commercial music – including non-Western styles of rock, country, and pop music-related styles). Some types of world music contain a mixture of non-Western indigenous styles with Western pop music elements. Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual music. Many current music festivals for non-Western music include bands and singers from a particular musical genre, such as world music. Indian music has mainly three forms of classical music, Hindustani, Carnatic, and Dhrupad styles.
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